Castalia S.r.l.
tel. +39.2.26681083
fax. +39.2.26681876

Ing. Paolo Rugarli

Structural engineer. Born in Milan, on May 17 1963. He lived in Rome until the end of High School, then moved to Milan.

Graduated at Politecnico di Milano on July 17th 1987, 5 years degree in Structural Engineering, cum laude, with a thesis on "Mechanical and computational aspects of plastic fracture mechanics", developed at the Euratom Common Research Center of Ispra, supervisors Prof. Eng. Giulio Maier, Prof. Eng. Jean Donea.

From 9/1/1987 to 12/31/1987 worked at research activities at Structural Engineering Department of Politecnico di Milano, as external (with Prof. Giulio Maier).

In 1988 attended compulsory military service.

From 1/1/1989 to 9/19/1991 was at Finzi Nova and Castellani consultant in Milan, working, among many others, at the finite element modelling of the Messina Strait Crossing cable Bridge (dynamic analysis and static analysis).

In January 1991 he set up, with Eng. Giorgio Borré - who left in 1995 -, the company Castalia S.r.l. which, from 9/19/1991, became the main place of his activity. He developed several software for finite elements analyses (including static analysis, modal analysis, response spectrum analysis, linear and non linear analyses, for very large-scale systems), using C language, first, and then C++ and Visual C++ programming techniques.

He focused his activity in particular in design and development of CAD-CAE software, in research and development of 'objects' models, able to formalize and systemize heterogeneous and complex problems (such as, for example, steel joints, steel connections checking problem in steel structures). He studied and implemented steel structures automatic checking algorithms, according to many different codes (among others AISC, Eurocode, Indian Standard).
Since 1991 all this work merged mainly into the finite element program Sargon and C.S.E., diffused in Italy and in many other Countries, of which he is the Author.

Sargon (solvers and checkers) has been used, among several others, for example, for the design and check of structures in Power Plants in Porto Tolle (Italy), Vado Ligure (Italy), Turbigo (Italy), Brindisi South and North (Italy), Takoradi (Ghana) by Enel, italian power-supply Company. Sargon copies have been bought in India (KEC International LTD) and Philippines (National Power Corporation). In Italy companies such as Enel, Ponteggi Dalmine - Gruppo Marcegaglia, TECHINT are Sargon users, among others. Sargon has been used by many experts in Italy to design and check many hundreds steel structures, in a time span ranging since 1991, to nowadays.

CSE has been sold in many Countries all around the world (Italy, Germany, France, Latvia, Spain, UK, Portugal, Greece, Giordany, Turkey, Korea, Malaysia, India, Singapore, Indonesia, USA, Chile, Kuwait,...). It is the first program that (since 2008) is able to tackle the problem of analyzing generic steel connections, modelled by freely placing components.

Mr. Rugarli personally set up finite element analyses of civil, mechanical and naval structures, among which static analysis of the Seabourn Cruise Ship Odyssey (design checks under hogging and sagging waves, departure and arrival conditions), which is 650 feet long, with a tonnage of 32,000 tons. He set up the finite element model of the ship from March 2007 to August 2007 (using Sargon and Nastran). The model had more than one million degrees of freedom, and was controlled and accepted by Seabourn experts.

He also made: vibration analyses of Cruise Ship Silver Whisper (170 m length overall, 11 decks, 15,000 tons); design-wave analysis of the Cruise Ship Silver Shadow (200 m length overall, 13 decks, 18,000 tons); propeller-shell joint area finite element model of the same ship Silver Shadow, and more.

In year 2000 he ended the development of software CESCO (Computer Education to Structural COnstructions), coproduced by Castalia srl and the Politecnico di Milano. CESCO, in several versions, has been sold to thousands Engineers in Italy. It has been used, and still is, as training tool for students in statics and design of structures at the Politecnico di Milano.

From a.y. 1999-2000 to a.y. 2004-2005 he was lecturer in statics and structural design at the II and III Faculty of Architecture of the Politecnico di Milano. He was several times invited lecturer by Italian Order of Engineners (Milano, Bergamo, Sondrio, Parma, Livorno, Cosenza...).

In 2001 he set up, under commission of PROMOZIONE ACCIAIO, the software PAS2001, distributed in Italy (several thousands copies distributed). The same software was attached to Manuale dell’Ingegnere – Nuovo Colombo, 84^ edizione, Hoepli, Milano, 2003, a widely diffused Italian engineer guide, - together with a paper titled "Structural Software". This paper presented some hints that were later useful for Italian standards writers.

Mr Rugarli wrote several books and papers.

In Autumn 2003 published with EPC LIBRI, Rome, the volume "Calcolo Strutturale con gli Elementi Finiti - Una spiegazione di base del Metodo degli Elementi Finiti applicato alla ingegneria strutturale" (Structural Analysis with Finite Elements: a basic explanation). This book has been translated in English and published in May 2010 by Thomas Telford, London.

In 2005 published with EPC LIBRI, Rome, the volume "Analisi Modale Ragionata" (Reasoned Modal Analysis).

In September 2006 published with EPC LIBRI, Rome, the CD BOOK "Calcolo di Strutture in Legno (introduzione all'Eurocodice 5)" (Wood Structure Checking - introduction to Eurocode 5).

In march 2007 published with EPC LIBRI, Rome, the CD BOOK "Strutture in acciaio. La classificazione dei profili. Commento all'Eurocodice 3" (Steel Structures. Cross-section classification. Comment to Eurocode 3), development of a work published originally in 1993. This work has recently been published in English by the Journal of Constructional Steel Research.

In March 2008 edited for EPC LIBRI, Rome, the volume "Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni" (Technical Standards for Constructions).

In April 2008 published with EPC LIBRI, Rome, the CD BOOK "Calcolo di Strutture in Acciaio" (Steel Structures Checking), with important proposals of re-writing of Eurocode 3 beam-column buckling test formulae, useful for by hand computation; a useful introduction to Eurocode 3; 100 test schedules and benchmarks of the same Code; examples to Eurocode 3, and more.

He is Author of several papers aimed at pointing out problems in the application of technical codes, and meaningful proposals of re-writing of the standards, mainly in steel structures and seismic analyses fields. Among others he pointed out errors in load combination rules of Italian standards (gq,i inside), and in seismic input evaluation of recent NTC 2008 (discontinuity in the grid and related problems, the so called room effect). He openly criticized the PSHA (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis) approach to seismic hazard evaluation in a much read paper pointing out the errors in the Italian Standard NTC 2008 (Zone, Griglie, o… Stanze?, Ingegneria Sismica, 2008).

He helped, as external expert, to write the Chapter 10 of Italian Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni 2008, mainly in the part prescribing cross-checks in strucutral models as was originally hinted in his original work Structural software published in Manuale dell'Ingegnere - Colombo - 84^ edizione, Hoepli, 2003.

In August 2010 translated into Italian the book "Designers' guide to Eurocode: Basis of Design", by H. Gulvanessian, J. A. Calgaro and M. Holicky, Thomas Telford, also editing for the Italian publisher EPC LIBRI the publication in Italian of the whole series (here is the link to the UK publisher related catalogue).

His current interests deal with the steel connections, steel joints checking problem, and with the structural model validation, while keeping upgraded the softwares Sargon and CSE, mainly aimed at the design and checks of steel structures (linear and non linear analyses).

Since year 2014 he edits a series of volumes for the Italian Publisher EPC, named I Diagonali. He personally translated in Italian, for the series, the masterwork The Stone Skeleton by Jacques Heyman, Cambridge University Press. The series collects new and different viewpoints, all considering the man, and not the machine, at the center of design process. The series first volume is, significantly, Human Error, a classic work by James Reason (Cambridge University Press).

In year 2014 he published the book Validazione Strutturale with EPC Libri, inside the series I Diagonali, as the result of years of study and research. The book fully deals with the problem of validating structural models and designs, also considering social and cognitive matters, heuristics & biases, and more (see the works by James Reason, Daniel Kahneman, and others). Also, in this book an in depth engineering analysis of the PSHA method (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment) used by the standards to evaluate seismic hazard, led Mr Rugarli to publicly request its dismissal as it has been proved baseless.

From February 2016 to May 2017 he has written the book Steel Connection Analysis, published by John Wiley & Sons in 2018. The book is the first one to systematically cover generic steel connection analysis using the finite element method, and it is the result of about 17 years of independent research. The generality of the approach has opened a new path to the analysis of steel connections: the book describes methodologies brand new. The book also explains the methodologies used by the software CSE, whose author is Mr Rugarli himself.